Physicochemical and Antibacterial Properties of Composite Films Based on Bacterial Cellulose and Chitosan for Wound Dressing Materials

I. S. Savitskaya, A. S. Kistaubayeva, I. E. Digel, D. H. Shokatayeva


New bacterial cellulose/chitosan (BC/Ch) nanocomposite films were obtained using a simple procedure by immersing BC synthesized by Komagataeibacter xylinus in 1% acetic acid solutions of Ch with the degree of deacetylation 75‒85% of medium molecular weight. The BC and BC/Ch composites chemical composition was examined by FTIR, the mechanical properties by a tensile tester, surface morphology by scanning electron microscopy, and antibacterial activity against S. aureus, E. coli and P. aeruginosa by diffusion and joint incubation methods. The FTIR spectra indicated the intermolecular interaction between BC and Ch. Due to addition of 0.6% (w/v) Ch, the films of BC/Ch become more homogeneous with a significantly denser fibril structure, smaller pore diameter and higher surface area in comparison to those of pure BC films. Micro- (15‒35 nm) and macrofibrils (50‒150 nm) in both BC and BC/Ch films are joined in ribbon-like fibers, providing a high degree of mechanical strength (Young’s modulus: 33‒36 MPa, tensile strength and elongation et break: 17, 22 MPa). The obtained hybrid material is transparent, flexible and displays good water absorption capacity and water vapor permeability. The films have reasonable thermal stability to be in contact with body or during steam sterilization, since maximum degradation temperature (Td) of both biocomposites is around 400‒600 °C. The disc diffusion method confirmed that the BC/Ch films have predominantly non-diffusible antibacterial properties. Antibacterial assessment by the joint incubation method proved that addition of Ch to BC films resulted in significant growth inhibition against target bacteria. The BC/Ch biocomposites’ notable properties make them suitable for wound healing applications.

Full Text:



  1. L.R. Lynd, P.J. Weimer, W.H. van Zyl, I.S. Pretorius, Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 66 (2002) 506‒577. Crossref
  2. N. Shah, M. Ul-Islam, W.A. Khattak, J.K. Park, Carbohydr. Polym. 98 (2013) 585‒598. Crossref
  3. W.K. Czaja, D.J. Young, M. Kawecki, R.M. Brown, Biomacromolecules 8 (2007) 1‒12. Crossref
  4. R.A. Pertile, S. Moreira, R.M. Costa, A. Correia, L. Guardao, F. Gartner, M. Vilanova, M. Gama, J. Biomater. Sci. Polym. Ed. 23 (2012) 1339– 1354. Crossref
  5. L. Fu, J. Zhang, G. Yang, Carbohydr. Polym. 92 (2013) 1432‒1442. Crossref
  6. J. Kucińska-Lipka, I. Gubanska, H. Janik, Polym. Bull. 72 (2015) 2399‒2419. Crossref
  7. D.R. Solway, M. Consalter, D.J. Levinson, Wounds: a Compendium of Clinical Research and Practice 22 (1) (2010) 17‒19. PMID 25901459.
  8. J. Wu, Y. Zheng, X. Wen, Q. Lin, X. Chen, Z. Wu, Biomed. Mater. 9 (3) (2014) 515‒528. Crossref
  9. F. Ostadhossein, N. Mahmoudi, G. Morales- Cid, E. Tamjid, F.J. Navas-Martos, B. Soriano- Cuadrado, J.M. López Paniza, A. Simchi, Materials 8 (2015) 6401‒6418. Crossref
  10. N.V. Majeti, K. Ravi, React. Funct. Polym. 46 (2000) 1–27. Crossref
  11. K. Shukla, K. Mishra, A. Arotiba, B. Mamba, Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 59 (2013) 46‒58. Crossref
  12. L. Casettari, L. Illum, J. Controlled Release 20 (2014) 189‒200. Crossref
  13. R.M. Silverstein, G.C. Bassler, and T.C. Morril, Spectrometric Identification of Organic Compounds, John Willy and Sons, New York, NY, USA, 4th edition, 1981.
  14. O. Akturk, A. Tezcaner, H. Bilgili, M.S. Deveci, M.R. Gecit, D. Keskin, J. Biosci. Bioeng. 112 (2011) 279‒288. Crossref
  15. Yu. Jia, X. Wang, M. Huo, X. Zhai, F. Li, Ch. Zhong, Nanomater. Nanotechno. 7 (2017 ) 1–8. Crossref
  16. J. Yang, X. Liu, L. Huang, D. Sun, Chin, J. Chem. Eng. 21 (2013) 1419‒1424. Crossref
  17. W.K. Wan, J.L. Hutter, L. Millon, G. Guhados, ACS Symp. Ser. 938 (2006) 221–241. Crossref
  18. M. Ul-Islam, T. Khan, J.K. Park, Carbohydr. Polym. 88 (2012) 596–603. Crossref
  19. M. Phisalaphong, N. Jatupaiboon, Carbohydr. Polym. 74 (2008) 482‒488. Crossref
  20. M.W. Ullah, M. Ul-Islam, S. Khan, Y. Kim, J.K. Park, Carbohydr. Polym. 132 (2015) 286–294. Crossref
  21. S. Khan, M. Ul-Islam, M. Ikram, M.W. Ullah, M. Israr, F. Subhan, Y. Kim, J.H. Jang, S. Yoon, J.K. Park, RSC Adv. 6 (2016) 110840–110849. Crossref
  22. J. Kim, Z. Cai, H.S. Lee, G.S. Choi, D.H. Lee, Ch. Jo, J. Polym. Res. 18 (2011) 739‒744. Crossref
  23. S.S. Wonga, S. Kasapis, Y.M. Tan, Carbohydr. Polym. 77 (2009) 280–287. Crossref
  24. L.C. Tomé, L. Brandão, A.M. Mendes, A.J.D. Silvestre, C.P. Neto, A. Gandini, C.S.R. Freire, I.M. Marrucho, Cellulose 17 (2010) 1203-1211. Crossref
  25. S-G. Anicuta, L. Dobre, M. Stroescu, I. Jipa, Analele UniversităŃii din Oradea Fascicula: Ecotoxicologie, Zootehnie i Tehnologii de Industrie Alimentară (2010) 1234‒1240 (in Romanian).
  26. P. Chen, S.Y. Cho, H-J Jin, Macromol. Res.18 (2010) 309‒310. Crossref
  27. S.C.M. Fernandes, L. Oliveira, C.S.R. Freire, A.J.D. Silvestre, C.P. Neto, A. Gandini, J. Desbrieres, Green Chem. 11 (2009) 2023‒2029. Crossref
  28. M.J. Tabaii, G. Emtiazi, Applied Food Biotechnology 3 (1) (2016) 35‒41.
  29. J. Kim, Z. Cai, H.S. Lee, G.S. Choi, D.H. Lee, C. Jo, J. Polym. Res. 18 (2011) 739‒744. Crossref
  30. C. Lai, S. Zhang, X. Chen, L. Sheng, Cellulose, 21 (2014) 2757‒2772. Crossref
  31. W.C. Lin, C.C. Lien, H.J. Yeh, C.M. Yu, S.H. Hsu, Carbohydr. Polym. 94 (2013) 603‒611. Crossref
  32. J.S. Boateng, K.H. Matthews, H.N. Stevens, G.M. Eccleston, J. Pharm. Sci. 97 (2008) 2892‒923. Crossref
  33. S. Dhivya, V.V. Padma, E. Santhini, Biomedicine (Taipei) 5 (4) (2015) 24‒28. Crossref
  34. E. Rohaeti, E.W. Laksono, A. Rakhmawati, Alchemy jurnal penelitian kimia 12 (1) (2016) 70‒87. Crossref
  35. С.M. Shih, Y.T. Shieh, Y.K. Twu, Carbohydr. Polym. 78 (2009) 169‒174. Crossref



  • There are currently no refbacks.