Critical Review of the Methods to Measure the Condensed Systems Transient Regression Rate

Vladimir E. Zarko


Accurate knowledge of steady state and transient burning rate of solid fuels and energetic materials is very important for evaluating the performance of different propulsion and/or gas generator systems. The practical demands imply accuracy of available burning rate data on the level of 1% or better and proper temporal resolution. Unfortunately, existing theoretical models do not allow predicting the magnitude of the burning (regression) rate with needed accuracy. Therefore, numerous burning rate measurement methods have been developed by various research groups over the world in the past decades. This paper presents a critical review of existing techniques, including basic physical principles utilized for burning rate determination, an estimate of the temporal and spatial resolutions of the methods as well as their specific merits and limitations. There are known the methods for measuring linear regression rate via high speed cinematography, X-ray radiography and ultrasonic wave reflection technique. Actually, none of those methods could satisfy the practical demands. As an alternative is the microwave reflection method, which potentially possesses high spatial and temporal resolutions and may solve the measurement problem. In addition, there exist methods for measuring transient mass or weight of the burning material. They are based on recording the frequency of oscillations of elastic element with attached specimen or a cantilevered rod with a strain gauge pasted to the base. Practically, these methods could not provide needed accuracy. Much better parameters can be obtained when using the recoil force or microwave resonator techniques. Recommendations for special applications of certain methods are formulated.

Full Text:



. V.E. Zarko. International Journal of Energetic Materials and Chemical Propulsion 3 (1994) 600‒623. DOI: 10.1615/ IntJEnergeticMaterialsChemProp.v3.i1-6.590

. R. Fry, L. DeLuca, G. Gadio, R. Fredericks, R. Strecker, H.-L. Besser, A. Whitehouse, J.-C. Traineau, D. Ribereau, and J. Reynaud. Solid propellant burning rate measurement methods used within the NATO propulsion community. AIAA 2001-3948, 37th AIAA/ASME/ SAE/ASEE JPC Conference and Exhibit, 8-11 July 2001, Salt Lake City, Utah. DOI: 10.2514/6.2001-3948

. R.M. Salizzoni, W.H. Hsieh, K.K. Kuo, Temperature Sensitivity Measurements and Regression Behavior of a Family of Boron- Based Very High Burning Rate Propellants, in: Combustion of Boron-Based Solid Propellants and Solid Fuels, K.K. Kuo and R. Pein, Eds, CRC Press, Jan. 1993, pp. 438−452.

. W.H. Hsieh, J.M. Char, K.C. Hsieh, K.K. Kuo, Modeling and measuring of erosive burning of stick propellants, AIAA Paper 1986-1451, AIAA/ ASME/SAE/ASEE 22nd Joint Propulsion Conference, June 16-18, 1986, Huntsville, AL. DOI: 10.2514/6.1986-1451

. N. Eisenreich, H.P. Kugler, F. Sinn, Propellants, Explosives, Pyrotechnics 12 (1987) 78‒80. DOI: 10.1002/prep.19870120304

. W.A. Wright. Ultrasonic thickness monitoring technique. Aerospace relative technology industry. Washington, DC, 1969, pp.69-72.

. P. Kuentzmann, J.C. Demarais, and F. Cauty. Ultrasonic measurement of solid ropellant burning rate, La Recherche Aerospatiale, 1979, No 1, 55-72.

. J.C. Traineau, and P. Kuentzmann, J. Propul. Power 2 (1986) 215‒222. DOI: 10.2514/3.22872

. F. Dijkstra, P.A.O.G. Korting, R.P. van den Berg, Ultrasonic regression rate measurement in solid fuel ramjets, AIAA 90-1963, 9 pp. AIAA/SAE/ ASME/ASEE 26th Joint Propulsion Conference, 1990, Orlando, FL. DOI: 10.2514/6.1990-1963

. F. Cauty and J.C. Demarais, Ultrasonic Measurement of the Uncured Solid Propellant Burning Rate, 21st International Congress of ICT, Karlsruhe, July 3-6, 1990, 14 pages.

. S.V. Shelton, A technique for measurement of solid propellant burning rates during rapid pressure transients, 4th ICRPG Combustion Conference, CPIAPubl.162, vol. l, Silver Spring, Md, Dec. 1967, pp.361-372.

. L.D. Strand, and R.P. McNamara, Progress in Astronautics and Aeronautics 63 (1978) 155‒172. DOI: 10.2514/3.57768

. L.D. Strand, K.R. Magiawala, and R.P. McNamara, J. Spacecraft Rockets 17 (1980) 483‒488. DOI: 10.2514/3.57768

. B.A. Aničin, B. Jojić, D. Blagojević, M. Adžić, V. Milosavljević, Combust. Flame 64 (1986) 309‒319. DOI: 10.1016/0010-2180(86)90148-3

. V.E. Zarko, D.V. Vdovin, V.V. Perov, Combustion, Explosion and Shock Waves 36 (1) (2000) 62‒71. DOI: 10.1007/BF02701515

. V.E. Zarko, V.V. Perov, A.B. Kiskin, Microwaves as a tool for energetic materials characterization. AIAA-02-0190. 40th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting & Exhibit, Aerospace Sciences Meetings, 2002. DOI: 10.2514/6.2002-190

. O.Ya. Romanov, V.S. Tarkhov, G.G. Shelukhin, Explosion, and Shock Waves 13 (1977) 789‒790. DOI: 10.1007/BF00740479

. V.D. Kochakov, A.E. Averson, S.A. Abrukov, Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves 14 (1978) 126‒127. DOI: 10.1007/BF00789188

. T. Brill, Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 18 (1992) 91‒116. DOI: 10.1016/0360-1285(92)90019-W

. A.V. Khudyakov, G.V. Gorvard, Je. V. Konev, V.F. Miheev, Fizika Goreniya i Vzryva [Combustion, Explosion, and Shock waves] 3 (1967) 462‒464 (in Russian).

. V.F. Mikheev, V.E. Zarko, S.M. Borin, K. Kutsenogii, V. Simonenko, 14th Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Progress in Astronautics and Aeronautics 63 (1976) 173‒187. DOI: 10.2514/6.1976-102

. C.E. Hermance, AIAA Journal 5 (10) (1967) 1775‒1778. DOI: 10.2514/3.4303

. C.F. Yin, C.E. Hermance, 9th Aerospace Sciences Meeting, 1971. DOI: 10.2514/6.1971-173

. U. Carretta, G. Colombo, C. Guarnieri, Electrostatic method for the instantaneous burning rate measurement in solid materials, Activity Report, CNPM, Milano, Sep. 1992, 44 pp.

. K. Klager, G.A. Zimmerman, Steady burning rate and affectingf factors: experimental results, In: L.De Luca, E.W. Price, M. Summerfield, Eds., “Nonsteady burning rate and combustion stability of solid propellants”, v.143, Progress in Astronautics and Aeronautics, 1992, Washington, DC, pp. 59-110.

. V.A. Arkhipov, S.S. Bondarchuk, A.G. Korotkikh. Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves 46 (2010) 564‒569. DOI: 10.1007/ s10573-010-0074-9

. C.M. Mihlfeith, A.D. Baer, N.W. Ryan, AIAA Journal 10 (1972) 1280‒1285. DOI: 10.2514/3.50372

. V.N. Simonenko, V.E. Zarko. Fizika Goreniya i Vzryva [Combustion, Explosion, and Shock waves] 17 (1981) 129‒132 (in Russian).

. V.E. Zarko, V.N. Simonenko, A.B. Kiskin, Progress in Astronautics and Aeronautics 43 (1992) 363‒398. DOI: 10.2514/5.97816008661 59.0363.0398

. S.F. Son, R.F. Burr, M.Q. Brewster, J. Finlinson, D. Hanson-Parr, Nonsteady burning of solid propellants with an external radiant heat flux: a comparison of models with experiment, AIAA Paper 91-2194, 27th Joint Propulsion Conference, 24-26 June, 1991, Sacramento, CA. See also: S.F. Son. The unsteady combustion of radiant heat flux driven energetic solids,” Ph.D. thesis, Urbana, Illinois (1994). DOI: 10.2514/6.1991-2194

. A.B. Kiskin, V.N. Simonenko. Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves 36 (1) (2000) 48‒53. DOI: 10.1007/BF02701513

. A.B. Kiskin, E. Volpe, L.T. De Luca. Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves 36 (1) (2000) 39‒47. DOI: 10.1007/BF02701512

. A.B. Kiskin, E. Volpe, L.T. De Luca. Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves 50 (2014) 168‒177. DOI: 10.1134/S0010508214020075

. V.V. Perov, V.E. Zarko, A.S. Zhukov. Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves 50 (2014) 739–741. DOI: 10.1134/S0010508214060173



  • There are currently no refbacks.