Ancient Egyptian Blue (CaCuSi4O10) Pigment by Modern Solution Combustion Synthesis Method

  • A. Panagopoulou Institute of Materials Science “Demokritos” National Center for Scientific Research, Aghia Paraskevi, Athens, Greece
  • K. Karanasios Institute of Materials Science “Demokritos” National Center for Scientific Research, Aghia Paraskevi, Athens, Greece
  • G. Xanthopoulou Institute of Materials Science “Demokritos” National Center for Scientific Research, Aghia Paraskevi, Athens, Greece

Abstract

The Egyptian blue pigment, CaCuSi4O10, has been used in ancient Egypt from 3000 BC. This pigment consists of CaCuSi4O10 with variable amounts of wollastonite (CaSiO3), high amount of Cu oxides, cuprite (Cu2O) or tenorite (CuO). It was prepared by melting the high percentage of copper in association with lime and desert sand in the Ancient time. In this work Egyptian blue was produced by solution combustion synthesis (SCS) in homogeneous aqueous solution of composition: cupper and calcium nitrates, sodium silicate and urea. This method permits chemically stable Egyptian blue fast and economic production. The Egyptian blue composition and structure obtained after SCS and calcination were studied by XRD, FTIR and SEM/EDX analysis. Crystallite size and crystal lattice parameters were calculated. An increase in combustion temperature during SHS and calcinations temperature influence Egyptian blue yield and crystallite size, slightly influence parameters of crystal lattice.

References

[1]. A. Lucas, J.R. Harris, Ancient Egyptian Materials and Industries, Histories and Mysteries of Man, London, 1989, pp. 338–366.

[2]. D. Ullrich, Egyptian blue and green frit: characterization, history and occurence, synthesis, PACT 17 (II.3.1) (1987) 323–332.

[3]. C.E. Brown, F. Macalister, M.M. Wright (Eds.), Conservation in Ancient Egyptian Collections, Archetype Publication, 1995, p. 85.

[4]. Vitruvius, De architectura libri decem, Buch VII, Kap. 11, 181 (ed. Fensterbusch), Darmstadt: Wiss. Buchges, 1981.

[5]. M.S. Tite, M. Binson, M.R. Cowell, Technological examination of Egyptianblue, in: J.B. Lambert (Ed.), Archaeological Chemistry, vol. 3, Washington American Chemical Society, 1984, pp. 215.

[6]. H. Jaksch, W. Seipel, K.L. Weiner, A.EI. Goresy, Naturwissenschaften 70, 1983, p.525.

[7]. S. Schiegle, K.L. Weiner, A.EI. Goresy, Naturwissenschaften 76, 1989.

[8]. P. Bianchetti, F. Talarico, M.G. Vigliano, M.F. Ali, Journal of Cultural Heritage 1 (2000) 179–188.

[9]. P. Baraldi, F. Bondioli, C. Fagnano, A.M. Ferrari, A. Tinti, M. Vinella, Anal. Chim. 91 (2001) 679– 692.

[10]. M.S. Tite, M. Bimson, & M.R. Cowell, "The technology of Egyptian blue". In M. Bimson & I.C. Freestone. Early Vitreous materials. British Museum occasional paper 56. London: British, 1987.

[11]. L. Lee, S. Quirke, (2000). "Painting materials". In P. Nicholson and I. Shaw. Ancient Egyptian materials and technology. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-45257-0.

[12]. H. Jaksch, W. Seipel, K.L. Weiner, & A.El Goresy, "Egyptian Blue- Cuprorivaite, a window to Ancient Egyptian technology", 1983, Die Naturwissenschaften 70 (11) 525–535. doi:10.1007/BF00376668.

[13]. G. Verri, Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 394 (4) (2009) 1011–1021.

[14]. P. McCouat, "Egyptian blue: the colour of technology", Journal of Art in Society, 2014, http://www.artinsociety.com.

[15]. G. Accorsi, G. Verri, M. Bolognesi, N. Armaroli, C. Clementi, C. Miliani, A. Romani, Chem. Commun. 23 (2009) 3392−3394.

[16]. J. Bredal-Jørgensen, J. Sanyova, V. Rask, M.L. Sargent, R. Hoberg Therkildsen, Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 401 (4) (2011) 1433−1439.

[17]. K.C. Patil, T. Mimani, Mater. Phys. Mech. 4 (2001) 134–137.

[18]. K.V. Manukyan, A. Cross, S. Roslyakov, S. Rouvimov, A.S. Rogachev, E.E. Wolf, and A.S. Mukasyan. J. Phys. Chem. 117 (2013) 24417−24427.

[19]. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scherrer_equation.

[20]. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bragg%27s_law.

[21]. http://www.rapidtables.com/web/color/html-colorcodes.html.

[22]. https://s’[‘mediacacheak0.pinimg.com/736x/1b/37/ec/1b37ec6dd26e4368cf9db7558ea46a4f.jpg.

[23]. C. Miraval, S. Saedlou, R. Evrard, P. Santacreu,J. Leseux, Metallurgy and Materials 66 (2) (2013) 153−158.
Published
2016-01-20
How to Cite
[1]
A. Panagopoulou, K. Karanasios, and G. Xanthopoulou, “Ancient Egyptian Blue (CaCuSi4O10) Pigment by Modern Solution Combustion Synthesis Method”, Eurasian Chem. Tech. J., vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 31-37, Jan. 2016.
Section
Articles