New Generation of High-Energy Chemical Propellants Based on Nano-Components
A possibility of designing propellant, in which the energy of intermolecular interaction in addition to chemical energy can be used, is considered. Application fine nano-components (clusters) in similar propellants is supposed. The method, which is based on positions of nanothermodynamics, is developed for determination of thermodynamic functions of similar particles (enthalpy, chemical potential, chemical affi nity in relation to various environments etc.). It is considered that for set of particles positions of classical and statistical thermodynamics are to the full right. Application of optimizing procedure is discussed. The standard system of readout, ideology of В«supramoleculeВ» and principles of statistical thermodynamics are applied to searching nanoparticles thermodynamic functions. The comparative analysis of this method and the method of quantum chemistry is carried out. Effi ciency of the suggested method is demostrated. Results of calculations have allowed drawing a conclusion that use of fi ne nano-components allows increasing essentially an energy potential of the propellants. High activity of fi ne nanoparticles results in rather high probability of coagulation of these particles and their interaction with environment. It is obvious that realization of this phenomena leads to sharp falling of a store of fine nanoparticles energy. Thus, a considerable problem at developing propellants on the basis of the specifi ed components is stabilization of nanoparticles. The analysis of various ways of this problem solution is carried out. It is shown that the method of steric (polymeric) stabilization of nano-particles is preferable. The estimation of stabilized nanoparticles characteristics and of stabilizing polymer weight is carried out. It is shown that application of polymeric coverings insignifi cantly reduces an energy potential of nanoparticles. The results obtained allow estimating the possibilities and operation conditions of different propellants.
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