Synthesis of Nucleosides`s Analogues and their Application as Chemotherapeutic Agents
Application of the chemical-enzyme approach which is a combination of chemical synthesis and enzyme reaction has allowed to develop original effective methods of synthesis both new compounds and known nucleoside antibiotics which have been inaccessible earlier. Among them preparations for the treatment of oncohaematological diseases like: Cytarabin, Leukladin (Cladribine), Fludarabel, ara-adenosine (Vidarabine), ara-guanosine and produced from the last by chemical method a new medicine for the treatment of T-cellular lymphomas – Nelarabine. Results on the comparative study of antileukemic activity of purine nucleosides using the model of the lymphoid leukemia L1210 are presented. It is shown that the model of mouse lymphoid leukemia L1210 in vivo is not useful for results extrapolation for human if specific activity of modified nucleoside shows itself in therapy of hair-cellular leucosis (HCL), acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and especially for T-cellular leucosis. From commercially available derivative of 2'-fluoro-arabinofuranose developed an original method for the synthesis of antitumor drug Clofarabine for treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) in pediatric patients. Highly effective technology producing pharmaceutical substance Pemetrexed has been developed. At present new chemical-therapeutic agent Pemetrexed, which is structural analog of folic acid containing 7-deasaguanine is introduced into clinic practice. It is first agent specially developed for treatment of malignant pleural mesothelioma. It is worth to note that possibilities of the Pemetrexed’s usage for treatment of other tumor diseases are not exhausted still. It is interesting to develop new method of synthesis of modified pyrimidine nucleoside Azacytidine possesses both cytostatic action and ability to inhibit DNA methyltransferases.
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