Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Shungite Rock of Kazakhstan
Physico-chemical characteristics of shugite rocks of Kazakhstan (Bakyrchik deposit) were studied using
the methods of elementary analysis, IR-spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy
and X-ray phase analysis. The content of carbon in shungite rock was determined to be from 3% to 19 %.
The flotation technology for shungite rocks of Kazakhstan was developed, the content of carbon in the
concentrate reaching 40.0%. When studying the elemental composition, the mineral part of shungite rocks
was stated to be presented, mainly, by silicon, aluminium, calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, iron
and titanium oxides. IR-spectroscopic investigations showed that in the concentrate, apart from polycyclic
hydrocarbons containing methylene groups, there appeared carboxyl groups. The results of scanning
electron microscopy (SEM) showed that flotation and thermal activation of shungite rocks on carbon allow
obtaining a more developed surface structure and porosity. The structure of shungite carbon was shown by
the method of Raman scattering to be close to that of glassy carbon. The results of X-ray diffraction analysis
(XRD) of natural shungite rocks showed that the samples under study contained a carbonaceous substance
and a number of mineral components: quartz, illite, bassanite, burgerite, muscovite. It is shown that shungite
carbon of “Bakyrchik” deposit is identical to shungite of Zazhogino deposit in Russia. The stated physicochemical characteristics allow to determine the directions of the use of carbon concentrate for solution of ecological and technological problems.
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