Propulsion Systems, Propellants, Green Propulsion Subsystems and their Applications: A Review


  • I. Remissa University of Chouaïb Doukkali, Faculty of Sciences, 24000 El Jadida, Morocco
  • H. Jabri University of Chouaïb Doukkali, Faculty of Sciences, 24000 El Jadida, Morocco
  • Y. Hairch University of Chouaïb Doukkali, Faculty of Sciences, 24000 El Jadida, Morocco
  • K. Toshtay Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, 71 al-Farabi ave., Almaty, Kazakhstan
  • M. Atamanov Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, 71 al-Farabi ave., Almaty, Kazakhstan
  • S. Azat Satbayev University, 22a Satpaev str., Almaty, Kazakhstan
  • R. Amrousse University of Chouaïb Doukkali, Faculty of Sciences, 24000 El Jadida, Morocco



Propulsion, Green propellants, Specific impulse, Hydrazine, Ammonium perchlorate, Rocket, Satellite


A wide range of propellants, and propulsion systems in space exploration by aircrafts or space vehicles was studied, developed, investigated, and commercialized. Liquid, solid, or hybrid propellants have been used for rocket’s launches. In this review, a consistent definition of space propulsion systems, including solid, liquid and hybrid has been given with up-to-date state of developments. A comparison of their performances was made by theoretical and experimental specific impulses. On the other hand, ammonium perchlorate and hydrazine were used as propellants for rocket’s launches and for satellite’s maneuverings; respectively. However, their high toxicity and their storage problem pushed researchers and scientists to investigate and develop other eco-friendly, propellant systems, so called “green propellants”, for launch or reaction control systems of satellites.


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How to Cite

Remissa, I., Jabri, H., Hairch, Y., Toshtay, K., Atamanov, M., Azat, S., & Amrousse, R. (2023). Propulsion Systems, Propellants, Green Propulsion Subsystems and their Applications: A Review. Eurasian Chemico-Technological Journal, 25(1), 3–19.




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