Catalytic Oxidation of Volatile Organic Compounds in Industrial Off-Gases
Processes and apparatuses for catalytic oxidation of VOCs in industrial off-gases are described, including steady state and unsteady state processes, a combined adsorption-catalytic process and an advanced method of ozone induced oxidation for low concentrated exhausts. On the basis of research and development works a series of catalytic incinerators, operating in steady state and unsteady state mode, of various capacity were designed, constructed and tested in the purification of ventilation air and off-gases from VOCs. The principles of operation of different types of catalytic incinerators and possible areas of application are discussed. For VOC concentrations 150-1000 mg/m3 unsteady state catalytic incinerators of KART type should be used, for concentrations 1000-3000 mg/m3 steady state KROT apparatuses are recommended, and for concentrations over 3000 mg/m3 up to 7000 mg/m3 installations TKM-250. It is shown that for the purification of low concentrated gases with the content of organic vapors below 150 mg/m3 adsorptioncatalytic method or catalytic oxidation with ozone in the installation OKA-3000 are most effective. Main kinetic dependencies of the ozone induced oxidation of toluene and acetone over copper oxide catalyst are given and discussed. It is shown that the efficiency of this method of VOCs removal is based on low operation temperature 313-343 K, by contrast to conventional catalytic incineration by air requiring preliminary heating of the gases to 523-573 K. A special consideration is given to adsorptive damping as an efficient method for leveling the VOCs concentrations in the real industrial exhausts directed to the catalytic treatment. The use of adsorptive dampers filled with carbon allows elimination of large deviations of pollutant concentrations in the gas entering the catalyst bed, thus increasing the VOCs removal efficiency from average values. For calculations of adsorptive dampers, an equation describing the profiles of VOC concentrations in gas phase along the length of the adsorbate bed in the damper was derived.
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